Irish Lesson 66

PRONUNCIATION REVIEW

You should be familiar now with the difference between broad and slender sounds in Irish, especially at the start of words. You must practice pronouncing them when they are inside or at the end of words, too, if you are to develop a proper "blas" (blahs), or accent.

Some English words will illustrate this. The word "epic" has a slender "c", while the word "epoch" has a broad "c". Note the difference. Now try these Irish pairs:

meirg (MER-ig), rust dearg (DYAR-ruhg), red

béic (bay*k), scream blaosc (blay*sk), skull

léic (lay*k), a failing leac (lak), flagstone

big (big), a form of "beag" beag (byuhg), small

circe (KIR-ke), of a hen Corcaigh (KOHR-kee), Cork

gairid (GAH-rid), short carad (KAHR-uhd), of a friend

"Corcaigh" tends toward (KOHR-kwee). You will hear the differences in sounds clearly in the speech of cainteoirí dúchais (keyen-TYOHR-ee DOOK*-ish), or native speakers of Irish.

GRAMMAR

"Déantar anseo é" (DAY*N-tuhr un-SHUH ay*) means "It is made here." This free form (called "saorbhriathar" (say*r-VREE-huhr) or "free verb" in Irish) can be put into the negative and question form, too, and into direct speech. In the negative:

Ní dhéantar anseo é (nee YAY*N-tuhr un-SHUH ay*), It is not made here.

Ní osclaítear an siopa roimh a deich a chlog (nee OH-sklee-tuhr un SHOHP-uh rev uh de uh k*luhg), The store is not opened before ten o'clock.

In the negative, "ní" aspirates the initial consonant if possible.

For the question:

An ndéantar in Éirinn é? (un NAY*N-tuhr) in AY*R-in ay*), Is it made in Ireland?

An óltar mórán bainne i gCeanada? (un OHL-tuhr muh-RAW*N BAHN-ye i GAN-uh-duh), Is much milk drunk in Canada?

"An" eclipses the first consonant of the free form, if possible. "Nach" and "go" also eclipse:

Nach ndéantar sa Ghearmáin é (nahk* NAY*N-tuhr suh YAR-maw*-in ay*), Isn't it made in Germany?

Sílim (SHEEL-im) go ndéantar sa Ghearmáin é; I think that it is made in Germany.

Is dócha go ndeirtear in Éirinn é sin (is DOHK*-uh goh NER-tuhr in AY*R-in ay* shin), It's probable that that is said in Ireland.

Dúirt Séamas go bhfeictear go minic í (DOO-irt SHAY*-muhs goh VEK-tuhr goh MIN-ik ee), James said that she is seen often.

VOCABULARY

Masculine nouns

Meicsiceo (MEK-shi-koh), Mexico; Sasana (SAH-suh-nuh), England; Béarla (BAY*R-luh), English (language)

Feminine nouns

an Fhrainc (un RANK), an Ghearmáin (un YAR-maw*-in), Germany; Ceanada (KAN-uh-duh), Canada; an Spáinn (un SPAW*-in), Spain; an Iodáil (un i-DAW*-il), Italy; Albain (AHL-uh-bin), Scotland; teanga (TANG-uh), language; Fraincis, an Fhraincis (FRANK-ish, un RANK-ish), French (language); Gearmáinis, an Ghearmáinis (GAR-maw*-nish, un YAR-maw*-nish), German (language); Spáinnis, an Spáinnis (SPAW*-nish), Spanish (language); Iodáilis, an Iodáilis (i-DAW*-lish), Italian (language)

thar lear (huhr lar), abroad

múinim, ag múineadh (MOO-in-im, uh MOO-in-uh), teach, instruct

craolaim, ag craoladh (KRAY*-lim, uh KRAY*-luh), broadcast

clóim, ag cló (KLOH-im, uh KLOH), print

clónn sé (klohn shay*), he prints

uaireanta (OO-i-ran-tuh), sometimes, now and again

de ghnáth (de GNAW*), generally

go hannamh (goh HAHN-uhv), rarely

DRILL

(Cleachtadh (KLAK*-tuh))

Form questions and answers according to this example: Cén teanga a labhraítear i Siceágo? (kay*n TANG-uh uh LOU-ree-tuhr i shi-KAW*-goh), what language is spoken in Chicago. Labhraítear Béarla i Siceágo. An labhraítear an Spáinnis i Siceágo? Ní labhraítear ann í (oun ee)

Work with these groups:

Éire (AY*-re); Gaeilge (GAY*-lig-e); an Iodáilis.

Meicsiceo; an Spáinnis; an Ghearmáinis.

An Fhrainc; an Fhraincis; Béarla.

An Ghearmáin; an Ghearmáinis; an Iodáilis.

An Iodáil; an Iodáilis; Gaeilge.

Ceanada; Béarla agus an Fhraincis; an Ghearmáinis.

KEY: Cén teanga a labhraítear in Éirinn? (in AY*R-in); labhraítear Gaeilge in Éirinn; an labhraítear an Iodáilis in Éirinn? ní labhraítear ann í.

Cén teanga a labhraítear i Meicsiceo? labhraítear an Spáinnis i Meicsiceo; an labhraítear an Ghearmáinis i Meicsiceo?; ní labhraítear ann í.

Cén teanga a labhraítear sa Fhrainc? (suh RANK); labhraítear an Fhraincis sa Fhrainc; an labhraítear Béarla sa Fhrainc?; ní labhraítear ann í.

Cén teanga a labhraítear sa Ghearmáin? (suh YAR-maw*-in); labhraítear an Ghearmáinis sa Ghearmáin; an labhraítear an Iodáilis sa Ghearmáin?; ní labhraítear ann í.

Cén teanga a labhraítear i gCeanada? (i GAN-uh-duh); labhraítear Béarla agus an Fhraincis i gCeanada; an labhraítear an Ghearmáinis i gCeanada? ní labhraítear ann í.

Combine the words "múin", "craol", and "clóigh" ("clóitear" is the free form) with the languages in the Vocabulary and with "uaireanta", "de ghnáth", and "go hannamh" to form sentences containing the free form. For example: Craoltar an Ghearmáinis uaireanta in Albain (KRAY*L-tuhr un YAR-maw*-nish OO-i-ran-tuh in AHL-uh-bin), German is broadcast sometimes in Scotland.

(c) 1998 The Irish People. May be reprinted with credit.

Irish Lesson 65 Irish Lesson 67

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