Irish Lesson 121

Cleachtadh briathra: practice with verbs

Read the following sentences aloud, or have someone who is familiar with the pronunciation guide of these lessons read them to you. Do not translate them in your mind. Instead, form a mental picture of, and perhaps an emotion concerning, the idea and the agent.

Ullmhaímid bia le haghaidh an lóin.

Níor ullmhaíomar an fheoil inné.

Nach n-ullmhaímid an t-iasc roimh an fheoil?

An ullmhóimid dinnéar roimh teacht do mhic?

D'ullmhóimis ceann eile, dá mbeimis in ann an fheoil a fháil.

Deisíodh an seandroichead tar éis na timpiste.

Déantar pinn níos fearr ná iad sin.

Cheapfá go mbeidís gan mhaith ar bith.

Ghoidfí é, dá bhfágfá (VWAWK-faw*) ar an tsráid é.

 

Key: We prepare food for the lunch. We didn't prepare the meat yesterday. Don't we prepare the fish before the meat? Will we prepare dinner before the coming of your son? We would prepare another one, if we were able to get the meat. The old bridge was repaired after the accident. Better pens than those are made. You would think that they were no good at all. It would be stolen, if you were to leave it on the street.

Notes: "Teacht" is a verbal noun and can serve as an ordinary noun.

 

Graiméar

The verb "is" has its own modh foshuiteach, aimsir láithreach, or subjunctive, present tense. It is very simple: gura (GU-ruh) and nára (NAW*R-uh) are the forms before words beginning with any consonant, including "f". Before words beginning with a vowel, the form becomes "gurab" (GUR-uhb) and "nárab" (NAW*R-uhb). These four forms generally occur only in certain expressions, such as the examples here:

Gura slán an scéalaí (SHKAY*L-ee); good luck to the story teller.

Nára mhaith an mhaise (VWAH-shuh) dó é; I hope it's no good to him.

Gurab amhlaidh (OU-lee) duit; May it be the same to you. This is the reply to "Nollaigh shona dhuit", Merry Christmas, etc.

Nárab olc an mhaise dó é; I hope that he will benefit from it.

 

Foirmeacha le "ar"

To ask another person to describe something, say, "Cuir síos air". Literally, this means, "Put down on it".

"Send for him" is: Cuir fios air; put knowledge on him.

To ask someone to force another person to do something, say "Tabhair air é a dhéanamh" (YAY*N-uhv).

"Socraigh air" means "Decide on it".

Cleachtadh leo seo:

Cuirfinn síos ar an teach, dá mbeifeá anseo; I would describe the house, if you were here. Cuireadh fios ar an ndochtúir; the doctor was sent for. Nár chuire tú síos ar an timpiste; I hope you won't describe the accident. Chuirfinn fios ar m'iníon; I used to send for my daughter.

Thug sé orm an carr a fháil; he made me get the car. Thabharfadh sé ar a mháthair a bhricfeasta a ullmhú, dá mbeadh sí sa bhaile; he would make his mother get (prepare) his breakfast, if she were home.

Socraíonn siad ar chruinniú go tapaidh (TAHP-ee); they decide on a meeting quickly. Shocraíomar ar bhrat urláir aréir; we decided on a rug last night.

 

Liosta focal briathra

scaip (skahp), ag scaipeadh ( uh SKAHP-uh), scaipthe, scaipeann sé, scaipidh sé; scatter, scattering scattered, he scatters, he will scatter.

ceistigh (KESH-tee), ag ceistiú (KESHT-yoo), ceistithe, ceistíonn sé, ceisteoidh sé; question, questioning, questioned, he questions, he will question.

nigh (ni), ag ní, nite (NI-te), níonn sé, nífidh (NEE-hee) sé; wash, washing, washed, he washes, he will wash.

croith (kri), ag croitheadh, croite (KRI-te), croitheann sé, croitfidh sé; shake, shaking, shaken, he shakes, he will shake.

maraigh (MAHR-ee), ag marú, maraithe, maraíonn sé, maróidh sé; kill, killing, killed, he kills, he will kill.

 

Ainmfocail (AN-im-OH-kil)

bruscar (BRUS-kuhr), an bruscar, an bhruscair; refuse, rubbish, the refuse, of the refuse; 1st declension.

cosamar (KOHS-uh-muhr), an cosamar, an chosamair; garbage; 1st declension.

frog (frohg), an frog, an fhroig (un rig), na froganna; frog, the frog, of the frog, the frogs; 1st declension.

méara (MAY*R-uh), an méara, an mhéara, na méaraí; mayor, the mayor, of the mayor, the mayors; 3rd declension

 

Comhrá

Leanann ár gcairde lena ngnóthaí an-tabhachtacha; our friends continue with their important affairs:

Diarmuid: Chuireamar ár mbruscar amach aréir.

Siobhán: Go mbailítear do bhruscar roimh a scaiptear é.

Breandán: Phós m'iníon é, phóg sí é, ach tá sé ina fhrog fós.

Róisín: Go ndéana Dia trocaire orthu beirt.

Daithí: Bhí mé amuigh go mall aréir.

Ríobhca (REEV-kuh) (Rebecca): Nár cheistí d'athair thú.

Donall: Chroith mé fein agus an méara lámh le chéile ar maidin.

Fionnuala: Nár nitear do lámh go brách.

Niall: Fuaireamar an t-airgead agus an talamh (TAH-luhv).

Pádraigín: Nár chaillimid go deo iad.

Peadar: Bhí an cat ag lorg na luch.

Eithne: Go maraí sé gach luch.

 

Key: Diarmuid: We put our trash out last night. Siobhán: May your trash be collected before it is scattered.

Breandán: My daughter married him, she kissed him, but he's still a frog. Róisín: May God have mercy on the two of them.

Daithí: I was out late last night. Ríobhca: I hope your father doesn't question you.

Donall: Myself and the mayor shook hands this morning. Fionnuala: May your hand never be washed.

Niall: we got the money and the land. Pádraigín: May we never lose them.

Peadar: The cat was looking for the mice. Eithne: May he catch every mouse.

 

Nótaí: "He questioned me" can be either "Chuir sé ceist orm" or "cheistigh sé mé". "Beirt", two persons, can precede or follow the compound prepositions. "Beirt agaibh" means 'two of you", and "orthu beirt" means "on two of them" or "on both of them".